Developments in display technology may increase the repertoire of interactions between users and digital media by increasing the number of sites for ‘ambient’ displays.
As metropolitan roadways become more congested and growth of road capacity is curtailed by lack of suitable land and by NIMBYism, automated highway systems may be employed to increase capacity and safety.
A nearly ubiquitous broadband architecture of wireless services for users of electronic telecommunications devices promises to be available globally by 2015.
Interested amateurs are likely to have increased opportunities in the future to donate resources, time, or labor in support of scientific research, thanks largely to low-cost distributed computing.
Interaction between personal electronic products, mediated by human skin, may lead to new, and greater use of, invasive applications.
The first practical biochemical nanocomputing devices are probably a decade or more away, but their development is being fueled by massive investment in research in the genomic sciences and nanotechnologies.
The concept of cyberspace as a distinct geographical entity has influenced the way we think about information technology, e-commerce, copyright, and high-tech products. New technologies are revealing a more complex relation between data-space and the real world, with consequences in all these areas.
The first physical neural interface between a computer and a human brain (probably serving a prosthetic function) may be demonstrated by 2015–2020.
Simulations that take advantage of vastly increased computing power could be used more heavily in the social sciences, eventually becoming the more dominant means of analysis as a method of predicting human behaviour.
The field of bioinformatics may grow over the next two decades, but not fast enough to meet increasing demand for bioinformatics expertise from pharmaceutical and other biochemical industries.
Solution of the seven maths problems named by the Clay Mathematics Institute as its Millennium Prize Problems may blur the line between 'pure' and 'applied' mathematics and could also have implications for computer and network architectures and security.
Nanoscale physical materials that can be automatically assembled into useful configurations by computer instructions could usher in a new era in manufacturing.
Parallel programming -- programming for hundreds or thousands of concurrent independent processes or 'threads' – may become increasingly important over the next decade as the result of developments in both hardware and software. Programming for small scale mobile and embedded devices may be an exception to this trend.
New technologies for cooperation and a better understanding of cooperative strategies may create a new capacity for rapid, ad hoc, and distributed decision making.
The tools of computational biology may be applied at an increasing rate to pharmaceutical innovation in the next 20 to 50 years, resulting in a faster, less costly, and more tailored approach to drug development.
Working prototypes of quantum computers may be demonstrated by 2040, making a whole new range of computationally intensive tasks possible.
Proactive and context-aware computer systems that anticipate users' needs and perform tasks in a timely and context-sensitive manner may begin to have an impact within the next 10 years.
New applications for supercomputing may develop over the next decade as large-scale supercomputing services become accessible over broadband terrestrial and wireless Internet networks by 2015.
Tiny processors and Web servers, some as small as specks of dust, with increasing capacities for data storage, may be widely embedded in the environment and in physical objects by 2015.
RFID tagging systems will probably be widely used to identify and track physical objects in a variety of industrial and consumer settings by 2015, despite concerns about potential abuse.
Nanoscale processors are likely to be widely adopted for general computing in most parts of the world by the middle of the century.